Culture and molecular characterization of phages isolated from rainbow trout farms and sewage treatment plants and investigation of their effects on Yersinia ruckeri



In the present study bacteriophages isolated from rainbow trout farms and sewage treatment plants were genetically identified and their effectiveness on Yersinia ruckeri isolates from clinical cases of red mouth disease was investigated.  Fish samples suspected to red mouth disease were collected from rainbow trout farms located in west Azerbaijan. Y. ruckeri, the causative agent of red mouth disease was initially identified using biochemical tests. The biotypes of all Y. ruckeri isolates were determined and their identity was confirmed by employing genus specific primers. Antimicrobial resistance of Y. ruckeri isolates were examined using common antibiotics in use in aquaculture. In order to isolating lytic bacteriophages, environmental samples mainly from rainbow trout farms and sewage treatment plants were collected in a period of six months. Isolated bacteriophages were titrated using two-layer agar method and their bactericidal effects were examined. For molecular characterization of bacteriophages, genomic DNA was extracted. Extracted genomic DNA from bacteriophages was digested using Msp < /em>I endonuclease. The results revealed that 4.48% of examined fish were positive for Y. ruckeri.  Bacteriophages isolated from urban sewage treatment plants were effective on Y. ruckeri isolates. Maragheh and Urmia sewage treatment plants had the maximum and minimum phage titers, respectively. The genomic DNA of all isolated phages were smaller than genomic DNA of Lambda phage and all examined phages showed similar genomic DNA digestion patterns. It was concluded that sewage treatment plants could be an important source for phages effective on Y. ruckeri and maybe other aquaculture bacterial pathogens.